Justin Raphael Roykovich
Montgomery College Teaching Demo
May 4th 2018

Digital and Darkroom Correlations in Developing Images: Basic Classroom Information

Required Texts:
Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools by Richard Paul & Linda Elder
Black and White Photography – A Basic Manual 3rd Edition by Henry Horenstein
- or -
Digital Photography: 11th Edition by London  / Photography (11th Edition) by London

Adobe Photoshop CC Classroom in a Book by Andrew Faulkner, et al
The Adobe Photoshop Lightroom CC Book for Digital Photographers by Scott Kelby

Recommended Texts:
101 Things to Learn in Art School by Kit White
On Photography by Susan Sontag
Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography by Roland Barthes
99 Ways to Tell a Story: Exercises in Style by Matt Madden
The Photograph as Contemporary Art by Charlotte Cotton

Digital Photo Syllabus Reference (click)

Netflix & Learn (click)

References on Critiques:
Critique Reader 1

Project Descriptions:
Black and White (click)
(further descriptions can be found near the end of this page)

*This section of the course would come in the beginning of the semester, after basic introductions to camera and software use. Ideally, these ideas would be introduced to photography students who are coming from darkroom into digital. While this demo is mainly geared toward digital photography students, it could be given in the reverse, to darkroom students who have digital knowledge as well.

Similarly, I use this as a way to cross-pollinate classes, meaning: a way to get digital students interested in darkroom, and darkroom students interested in digital.* 

- Review of last class - trifecta of light control in camera (Aperture, ISO, Shutter Speed), Basic Camera Operation
- Introduction to different capabilities in contemporary photography practices

Today's Topic Points:
- Introduce digital and darkroom correlations & differences in image development
- Grain/Noise: a photographer's arch-nemesis
- Start to give materiality to abstract tools in Photoshop

- Controlled by ISO in both digital & film; stagnant in film, stagnant & changeable in digital
- Film size: 35mm, 120, 4 x 5, etc
- Sensor sizes
- Resolution/pixels - what's the difference? how does monitor size affect this? difference between HD vs SD?

How to control grain in film developing:
- film speed, ISO: 100, 400, 3200
- TriX vs TMax: photoreceptors
- Chemical handling
- Time
- Developer
- how does this correlate to digital? 

How to control grain/noise in digital developing: 
- ISO control in camera
- Editing RAW files
- Photoshop vs Lightroom: differences, capabilities & uses, destructive vs. non-destructive

How to control Sharpness & Contrast, Digital & Darkroom Similarities: 
- filters
- dodging & burning (Sallie Mann)


Quick Reference Guides:

How Your Eyes Work:

Shutter Speed Reference Videos:

Black and White Movie References: 

Color Movie References:

Homework 1

As we start off the semester as potential image makers, I would like you start thinking about the very act of taking a photo and adding to an already inundated field of visual culture. Let's consider the following short articles: 

1. https://fstoppers.com/other/stats-how-many-photos-have-ever-been-taken-5173

2. http://hyperallergic.com/48765/how-many-photos-do-americans-take-a-year/

3. http://www.buzzfeed.com/hunterschwarz/how-many-photos-have-been-taken-ever-6zgv#.gdYQwXmR1
(Pay attention to the historical photos from the 1800's, not to the hokey sentiments.)

4. Read through the following blog post from an admittedly non-academic source who nonetheless brings up some interesting thoughts:

5. What Makes a Photographer When Everyone is Taking Pictures? (via PetaPixel)
Here, much of what Van Sickle says is important - but really pay attention to when he speaks about what makes a good photographer.

6. Finally, listen to this episode called AWE/INFORMATION OVERLOAD from the Big Think: Think Again Podcast, (episode 1).
When listening to this podcast, I want you take special note to what curator Sarah Lewis speaks of. Listen to her segment a couple times if need be.

Ready to digest all of that? Now, I want you think about the following questions:
1. With all that information - very simply, why take another photograph?
2. Why should you, (and I mean you personally), create photographic images? What can you do to contribute to a world that is already inundated with images? Can your images survive, and if so, how? 
3. What do you think it means for our culture to be surrounded by images - images that people consciously and physically move* themselves to take - to then consider that those images may not exist in 20, 10 or even 5 years? Is the mere intent of documenting something enough, or does a record of that documentation need to survive? 
4. What makes a good photographer when we live in an age where everyone has the capability to take a photo?
5. Thinking back to Sarah Lewis, what do you think it means to have visual work and/or visual communication, or as Lewis puts it, "an aesthetic force" be at the forefront of a way that a society can reflect back upon itself? What is her argument for this force and how it can potentially be stronger than other elements for social change?
6. In the podcast, they talk about "mediating subjectivity" - what do you think that means? Can photographs do that? (Think about the camera as a "mediator" between you and the world around you, for example.)
7. How can, or How does an artist create context for their work? 

Also something more to consider: why be a photographer when 9 year olds can win "Photographer of the Year" awards?
(Despite the poor kid's tendency to plaster everything with a watermark.)

For your responses, I am generally looking 3 or more well crafted paragraphs, weaving together your thoughts regarding what you just read. This usually amounts to a page or so of writing. However always feel free to elaborate more if you're inclined. The questions I pose are rhetorical, you do not need to answer them all in written form - though at the very least, you should have thought about potential answers for yourself. For your written responses, you may pick out certain questions I have posed to answer, you may pose your own questions or you may address a specific topic that you think is important. As long as you reference the source material, your responses can be open to various directions.

Homeworks will be assigned on Mondays and will then be due the following Monday before midnight. You will always have a full week to complete homeworks. 

Feel free to email me with any questions.

*I mean this quite literally - traditional photography is, for all intents and purposes, a spatial medium. A photographer must adapt to their surroundings and that includes the positioning of their body. There is an important sculptural and performative aspect to photography. 

Homework 2

This week's homework will encompass three different parts: 

1. I would like you to look over this list of links in reference to the history of digital photography. You do not need to memorize anything on this list, though you may find it helpful for context and just for general information: 

The 30 Most Important Digital Cameras of All Time (via Popular Photography)
The history of digital cameras (via Digital Spy)
- (More) The history of the digital camera (via CNet)
Key dates in the history of digital photography 1960 - 1989 (via Practical Photography Tips)
Digital Photography Revolution (via Business Insider)
Kodak's First Digital Moment (via The New York Times)

2. From here on out, you will be looking at some technical information that I have pulled from various sources, including your textbook. These readings will supplement and support much of what we discuss in class, but may go into further detail and/or provide deeper context. These readings will hopefully prove very informative and beneficial for you, and you should also be sure to read them thoroughly and carefully: I give you warning right now that anything on these technical readings is fair game for pop quizzes and/or tests, especially if I think you are not reading them. So please go through them, take notes and make sure that you are able to understand all the information given on them. If you have questions regarding what you may read, please bring them to my attention at the beginning of our class periods. We will further go over much of this information in class, with the readings providing a solid backbone. For clarification, you do not have to write about anything in the readers, though you may certainly reference them if you want. 

There are pages in the HW2 Reader that relate directly to pages in your text - you should also look over those pages, as follows: 2-17, 52-55, 75-81, 86-89, 130-131. Also, pay attention to the artists that are brought up in your textbook - some are photographers we will talk about during the semester, and others can be potential Show & Tell artists. 

3. Finally, for your written responses this week, I would like you to read over the two short essays by Brian Ulrich and Paul Graham, that are attached. With your responses to these two written pieces, I would like you consider the following questions: 

1. Given the context of what you read, how is photography easy for you?
2. Conversely, how is it hard? 
3. Describe to me a photograph that you did not take that haunts you. 

Readings: (click on)
Brian Ulrich - Photos Not Taken
Paul Graham - Photography Is Easy
HW Reader 2

Homework 3

For Homework 3, I would like you to read over the following technical information from your textbook: 

Shutter Speed and Aperture: 18 - 27
Depth of Field: 42 - 49
Exposure Meters: 62 - 73

Remember, any or all of the technical readings are fair game for pop quizzes and/or tests, especially if I think you are not reading them

For your written responses this week, I would like you to read over the attached PDF, which is the first chapter of Charlotte Cotton's book, The Photograph as Contemporary Art. This chapter will introduce the photograph as a conceptual art object instead or in addition to the photograph as a document. It will also go into a brief history of contemporary art, which many of you should find useful. As always, I would like you to respond to this reading with a well crafter 3-paragraph response detailing your thoughts. You many use the below questions as jumping off points, and you may bring in your own questions as well. 

Homework 3 will be due before midnight on Wednesday, March 8th. 

1. What is the difference between the photograph as an object (or "a work of art") versus the photograph as a document? 
2. What is a performance, in relation to art?
3. What is conceptual art?
4. Is there still a need to create "good" pictures? 
5. Who is Marcel Duchamp? (Y'all should know this. Sugimoto references him.)  Who is Alfred Stieglitz? 
6. Who is Sophie Calle? What is her work like? What do you think about the ethics of her work?
7. How can conceptual photography be related to or dictated by culture? 
8. What is the difference between an act being photographed versus an act being done for the sole purpose of being photographed? 
9. Out of the artists in this chapter, whose work did you respond to the most? 
10. After reading this chapter, what has changed about your thoughts (or have your thoughts changed) regarding what a photograph is capable of?

If This is Art (click) 

Homework 4

Homework 4 will encompass a couple different parts: 

1. Please read the technical reader that is attached - the pages should correspond with pages in your textbook, but there is an extra page in this from another book that I think will be helpful. This will go over basic steps for thinking about and converting images from color to black and white within Photoshop. To reiterate what I said in class today, you ALWAYS want to shoot in color and then convert to black and white within a software. You DO NOT want to set your camera to shoot in black and white. If you set up your camera to shoot in black and white, you will be losing valuable color information that could be editable later on in post production. As always, please keep in mind that anything and everything on these technical readers is up for possible testable material, so read them thoroughly and carefully. 

2. Please also go over the attached reader that includes short excerpts from various writings that deal with conceptual components of what black and white can mean in imagery. These excerpts come from a book called Colour, which is edited by the artist, writer and philosopher named David Batchelor. It is produced by a publisher in England called Whitechapel, which is a publishing extension of a gallery in London of the same name. It is a really great book, if you happen to be interested in color theory. Similarly, Whitechapel has worked with MIT Press to produce a whole series of these books that deal with various different topics that is a really wonderful group as a whole. If you are interested in pursuing the visual arts further and want to learn about the theoretical backbone of many different topics associated with contemporary art, I highly recommend this series. 

3. Finally, please watch this short video on some quintessential black and white scenes from film: https://vimeo.com/134028599

For your written responses this week, I would like you to talk about your thoughts about both the black and white reader, the short video and what we have gone over in class. Together, write about where you think the strengths in black and white photography are. What about in relation to the video and/or what we've viewed in class? Are there any examples from the reader that make you consider the colors of black and white differently? Reference specific examples. 

As always, your written responses should encompass 3 well crafted paragraphs that link together your thoughts and ideas. 

As a reminder, your 50 Flickr photos for this week should also have the following included in them: 
- Choose 10 subjects, and for each subject, photograph it with a shallow depth of field, a medium depth of field and a large depth of field. This will equal 30 photos total.
- 20 photos that are free and open to whatever you wish them to be.

Homework 4 will be due before midnight on Wednesday, March 15th.

Readings (click): 
Black and White Reader
Homework 4 Reader

Homework 5

1. First, please read the following pages of your textbook: 

pgs. 30 - 40, 48 - 51, 60 - 61, 72 - 73

2. Please read the first chapter in your Photoshop CC Classroom in a Book. (This book will allow you to spend extra time in the software and cover more nuanced aspects of Photoshop that we will not get to in class.) 

As always, please keep in mind that anything and everything here is up for possible testable material, so read them thoroughly and carefully.

3. I would like you to read over the attached reader that deals with theoretical implications of photography both between the photographer and subject, but also looking at photography's influence on the relation between those two entities throughout it's short history. Your responses for this week should deal with your thoughts regarding this reader. I will provide some questions below to think about, though feel free to bring up anything else that you may have found interesting. Per usual, please craft a short but well crafted response that consists of at least three paragraphs. Your responses will be due by March 22nd, before midnight.

  • Are you a camera? What do you think Christopher Isherwood means with that quote? 
  • Carlo Rim says that people cannot be just people if there is a "photograph between" them. What do you think that means? Is there anyone you can think of in which you share a similar relationship? 
  • Rim also says that "the day photography was born humanity won a precious victory over time". Do you agree? Why or why not? 
  • What is Rim's argument in defending a snapshot over a "posed" photograph? 
  • Rim says, in 1930, that "our culture has become visual". How do you think he would respond to today's visual culture? 
  • For Rim, how is the the snapshot "complete"? 
  • For the Barthes article, think back to our conversations about Marlene Dietrich and Elizabeth Taylor. Barthes calls Garbo a "face-object" - what do you make of that? (And if you do not know what he is talking about with Garbo, you should research it.)
  • Barthes talks about Garbo's face being a mask - what do you think he means by that? What do think it mean's for Garbo's face in photography? 
  • In the de Duve piece, he begins by talking about the differences between an event, a picture and a photograph. Is there a difference between those three, and if so, what? 
  • According to de Duve, does photography really stop time? Do you agree? Why or why not? 
  • Like Rim, de Duve brings up the snapshot - do you think Rim's and de Duve's definitions of the snapshot are similar? What is the difference between the snapshot and the "time exposure" for de Duve? 
  • What is a "semiotic object"? 
  • His ideas about the power of photography and its "mythical power of life and death" are interesting - what are your thoughts? 
  • What do you think of the notion of portraiture being "funerary" in nature?  
  • de Duve's ideas of how photography sets up a new way of experiencing space and time I think are important - what are your thoughts? (There's a lot to unpack here - do the best you can with your analysis.) 
  • de Duve then starts to bring in memory - how is memory important to his idea of "reading" a photograph? 
  • For de Duve, what is the paradox in photography? 

3. A reminder about your Flickr photos this week: 25 photos that use the snow to produce high contrast in images, and then 25 free images.

Homework 5 Reader (click)

Homework 6

1. For Homework 6, I would like you to read a short essay by philosopher and cultural critic Susan Sontag called "On Photography". This essay is just a snippet of thought that also exists in a longer book, if you are interested. I mentioned Sontag briefly the other day in class: she was the partner of Annie Leibovitz for the last decade+ of her life, as well as being one of the last great American "intellectuals". You may want to do a bit more internet research on her to better familiarize yourself on her oeuvre before you start reading - it may help in understanding where she is coming from. Sontag was interested in photography for much of her life - this in turn led her to meet Leibovitz in 1989. From that moment, Sontag and Leibovitz had an indelible yet undefined relationship until Sontag's death in 2004. 

For some of you, this might be a bit of a denser reading; there is a lot to unpack here. The first batch of questions I will list are things you may want to look up to help you better understand the reading. You do not have to answer these questions, though it will prove highly beneficial for you to be aware of the answers for yourself. The second batch of questions are more related to the general understanding of the text; these are the questions I would like you to address in your responses.  You may continue to bring up your own thoughts. Again, please write a response with at least three cohesive and well defined paragraphs on your thoughts regarding what Sontag talks about, in correlation to your own thoughts about whether you think this can support or refute notions of photography as we know it today.

Things to look up to help your understanding of the article:
- Google Godard's Les Carabinier's. How does this piece relate to Sontag's thoughts?
- Who is Alfred Stieglitz? Who is Paul Strand?
- What is a Brownie? (Hint: it's not a baked good.)
- Who is Chris Marker and why might he be important? 
- Who is Ben Shahn? Russell Lee?
 - Who is David Octavius Hill? Julia Margaret Cameron?
- Who is Dziga Vertov and what is Man With A Movie Camera?
- Have you seen Hitchcock's Rear Window? How does that film support Sontag's thoughts?

Questions to think about for your responses: 
- What does she mean when she says that to "photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed"?
- What is the "essential quality" she talks about that photographs lose when reprinted in books?
- What do you think of her argument about photography versus written text?
- How are photographs "furnish evidence"?
- What does she mean when she says that "a painting or prose can be a narrowly selective interpretation, while a photograph can be a narrowly selective transparency"?
- Is photography mirroring reality? Why or why not?
- Do you agree with her assessment of an inherent passivity in photography?
- On Photography was published in 1977 - when she says that photography "has become as widely as practiced amusement as sex and dancing," what do you think Sontag would think of how we use photography today?
- What do you think of Sontag's assessments of photographing one's children or travels?
- What do you think about the notion of the camera as a tool for intervention?
- How is a camera omnipresent?
- Do you think Sontag is advocating for or excusing a passive photographic encounter? Or for a more interventive stance?
- How does taking "good" pictures imply that the photographer is complicit their subject, even when that subject is suffering?

Pay close attention to this: "What is written about a person or an event is frankly an interpretation, as are handmade visual state­ments, like paintings and drawings." 

2. In addition to the Sontag reading, I would also like you to also look over the attached reader about critiques. You do not have to write about it, but please make sure you read it thoroughly -it will help you understand the use and need of critiques before our first one about your own personal work for Project 2, which we will be talking about the Wednesday you get back. 

3. Please read Chapter 2 in your Photoshop CC Classroom in a Book. For those of you who are struggling some with the software, this book (or a similar manual) will help immensely. 

4. Please also read over the following pages in your textbook: 30 - 4, 48 - 51, 60 - 61, 72 - 73, 82 - 83, 94 - 95, 152 - 173 

5. Finally, I did not give a Flickr prompt this week, so you have 50 free photos for this current week. For the following week of spring break, I expect many of you will continue shooting for the second project. However, I also know that many of you are going somewhere for the break - so, for the week of spring break, I will be looking forward to seeing 50 photos from each of you of the various exotic places that you all are going so that I can live vicariously through you here in cold Minnesota. Think about the things we've talked about in class: highlighting contrast, tone/value, mood, texture, lighting, etc - all of these things are useful and applicable not only to black and white images, but moving into color as well. 

I also encourage you to look over the Sontag reading, as well as the pages from your textbook, before you continue shooting for Project 2, and/or taking vacation shots. These readings may help you think more about your framing, composition and the conceptual reasons as to why you are interested in the things that you are. 

Because of the break, your responses for Homework 6 will be due before midnight on Wednesday, April 5th. 

P.S. - Just quickly, I am also attaching Ansel Adams' equations on how to achieve the proper focal length when shooting subjects at certain distances. If any of you are mathematically inclined, you may find this useful. For those, like myself, who are not - we can be grateful for modern cameras that allow us to not have to do things like this. 

Readings (click):
Adams Lenses
Critique Reader 1
Sontag On Photography

Homework 7

As you know, Project 3 will be based around "abstraction" and color. Because of such, we will start reading a little bit about what abstraction can mean when we talk about art in general. We will continue to talk about how it relates specifically to photography in class.

1. First, take a look at a question answered by the prominent art critic, Jerry Saltz: http://www.vulture.com/2011/02/ask_an_art_critic_jerry_saltz_7.html#

I would like you to specifically read the last question about abstraction and Jerry's response. (You may of course read the rest of the article if you wish, but it is not required.)

2. Next, please read this article called "Your Definitive Guide to Reading a Piece of Abstract Art" by Priscilla Frank, which goes in hand with Jerry's: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/06/13/abstract-art_n_5486273.html

3. After that, please also read this article, "Against Being So F*cking Obvious," by Claire Fallon: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/slate-subtle-against-being-obvious_us_5638f5a3e4b027f9b96a4543

4. Finally, look at this piece - while it is not directly photo related, it fits with our theme and deals with one of the most confounding art forms there is: "There's a very good reason for fashion to be this weird," by Robin Givhan: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/arts-and-entertainment/wp/2016/03/07/theres-a-very-good-reason-for-fashion-to-be-this-weird/

For your responses this week, based on what you've read, I would like you to consider any or all of the following questions: 

  • why make abstract art? 
  • What can one accomplish through abstraction that is different than through direct representation? 
  • Is there a difference between abstraction and metaphor? 
  • Is there meaning in abstraction? 
  • How do beauty and value complement or contradict each other? 
  • Should universal value be defined by ones personal tastes? 
  • Or how about by cultural tastes? 
  • Does abstract art have to be serious? 
  • Where does beauty come from in art? 
  • Should beauty be defined by quality? 
  • What are the advantages to using non-literal visual languages? 
  • Does abstraction subvert easiness? 
  • Is an easy to read piece of art bad? 
  • Is there value or beauty in being made to think by a piece of art? 
  • What do you think the difference is between an abstract painting and an abstract photograph? 
  • How is a photograph not a picture, but a thing
  • How is all art abstract?

Using our typical three paragraph model, I would like your responses to tackle some or all of those questions, depending how ambitious you are. You may of course bring in your own thoughts and questions as well. You may also use more than three paragraphs if you should like to elaborate more.

Your responses will be due before midnight on Wednesday, April 12.

In addition to these readings, I would like you also to look at the following pages in your texts books:

Photoshop Classroom in a Book: Chapter (Lesson) 3

Short Course Digital Photo Text: 
34 - 35, 52 - 59, 74-75, 80-81, 84-85, 92-93, 96-105, 

Remember that anything and everything on your technical readings is subject to quizzing. 

Also I realized I did not assign your Flickr assignment today in class. 

Your Flicker assignment this week will deal with focal length. I would like you to follow a similar model to the depth of field assignment, but this time dealing with focal range. So, I would like you to choose 10 subjects, and take three photos of these subjects: 

One photo at a very short focal range;
One photo at a medium focal range; 
One photo at a long focal range. 

Equalling 30 photos. 

You photos should turn out looking like one closeup of a subject, one medium shot of a subject and one image that shows your subject further back. 

The other 20 photos this week will be free and at your discretion.

Some of you are woefully behind on your Flickr photos. Remember that these Flickr photos are 20 points of your overall grade - so if you do not do them, the highest you'll be able to get in the course is a 79. So make sure you all get caught up. By the end of the semester, you should have somewhere around 600 photos on Flickr. 

If any of the directions for this week are confusing, we can talk about it in class on Friday. 

Homework 8

For this week's homework, I would like you to read the attached PDF that talks briefly about color. In addition, I would like you to watch the following video that talks about the use of color in film: 

(The YouTube channel that this comes from is generally pretty great if you're interested in watching more.) 

For your responses this week, I would like you spend at least three paragraphs answering the following two questions: 

1. What does color mean to you? (This is purposefully broad and open-ended.) For your answer to this, I would like to pull from at least one of the short excepts on color from the PDF to reference. 

2. I would also like you to talk about an an example of your most potent remembrance of color from a photograph or from a film. You may also bring in a real-life experience if you wish, if there was a time you can remember from an experience in which a color still stands out to you. 

Your responses will be due before midnight on Wednesday, April 19th. 

Also, do not forget about your Flickr assignment this week: 5 photos from your daily lives that capture the 6 primary and secondary colors: red, purple, blue, green, yellow and orange. When uploading to Flickr, arrange them in such a way that the colors are in the order of the color wheel as in the example above. You can use any color as a starting point, but be sure to go in sequential order.

Readings (click):
Color Reader

Homework 9

For Homework 9, I would like you to read and watch the following links about the photographer Rachel Sussman: 

(be sure to watch the short vimeo clip, as well as her TED talk, which is also listed below)



You can also peruse her blog:

And her personal site: 


The Brain Picking's article admittedly has a very distinct and opinionated point of view, though it also brings up many issues about human existentialism through nature and the seemingly juxtaposing positions of religious dogma versus science - despite where you might fall on that religious spectrum, how might Sussman's work contribute to a better understanding of the fragility of life on the planet? What does a 13,000 year old eucalyptus tree reveal about the meaning of human life? 

From her TED talk, what do you think she means by using this work to "step outside our quotidian experience of time?"

On a more basic level, what do you think about the way that she combines science and art; in the Brain Picking's article it talks about "aesthetic force" - how does Sussman combine that with a scientist's approach? How does the scale Sussman's work make you, personally, think about your role in the timeline of history, if it does at all? 

What do you think about the technical aspects of her photographs? Are they successful? Why or why not? 

Read about her discussion of portraiture vs landscape in regards to her photos in the Bomb article - what do you think about her response? 

What do you think of the notion of "humanizing the abstract" through her work? 

Do you think that a photographic practice like Sussman's is important? Do you think her photographs have the capacity or power to change anything? Or is her gesture of enacting on this project enough? 

Be sure to read & research about Sussman and The Senator Tree as well: http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2012/02/17/rachel-sussman-senator-tree/

Finally, I would like you to address how you think Sussman uses color to her advantage (or disadvantage). Her palette is obviously informed by her subjects, yet color could be seen as contributing to the meaning of her subject. How so?  

As usual, write a well connected short essay (at least three paragraphs) in response to these questions, along with anything else that was brought up for you with Sussman's work. Your responses will be due before midnight on Wednesday, April 23.

Beyond the Sussman articles, you should also read chapter 14 from your Photoshop in a Classroom book that will dive deeper into working with color in the software. 

Homework 10

For this week's homework, I would like you to read an excerpt from Roland Barthes' Camera LucidaCamera Lucida remains one of the first theoretical and philosophical texts written about photography, in 1980 - which should give you an indication as to how recently photography has been accepted into the art canon as an actual art form, along with painting, drawing, sculpture, etc. 

Some fair warning - this writing may be a bit dense for some of you. You should not leave this text to last minute, lest you get frustrated. You are entirely welcome - and encouraged - to do outside research on Barthes and this particular writing. Furthermore, you should feel free to take notes and re-read passages if you feel you need to. While the intent is indeed to have you absorb as much of this text as possible, the greater overall goal is for you to begin to approach photography from different angles (no pun intended) to understand better the relationship between the act of photographing your subject and then how that subject is viewed through the photo - not only by those two parties, but also by an outsider to that interaction. 

As usual, your response to this text should be at least three well crafted paragraphs. Feel free to expand and include more should you need to. I will outline some jumping off points/questions below. You may expand upon some or all of those questions, though you may also bring in your own questions or thoughts that may not necessarily included below. 

Your responses will be due before midnight on Wednesday, May 3rd. 

Also, I did not assign a Flickr prompt this week. If you would like some suggestions on where to go with this week's 50 photos, I would encourage you to start to think about using your lens as a tool for examination - find some objects in your daily travels go as close as you can to them, use a shallow depth of field, explore the detail in thse ordinary things that may go unnoticed. Cracks in sidewalks, flower petals, blades of grass - do not be afraid to use the banal and mundane as inspiration. Sometimes that which is the the most ubiquitous can hold forgotten wonder. 

Possible questions/points to consider: 
- what do you think the importance is to see something through someone else's eyes? (And think of this beyond just a metaphor, instead to use that other person's eyes as your own.) 
- what do think Barthes means when when he says he liked photography in opposition to cinema? 
- how would photography not "exist on its own" for Barthes? How does he solve that for himself throughout the text?
- how do you think the photograph mechanically repeats what could never be repeated existentially? 
- if you need to, do a bit of a internet research on the Lacanian notion of "The Real" to understand better what Barthes is getting at. Once you understand that idea, do you think Barthes initially arrives at the right conclusion? 
- is a photograph always representative of what it depicts? Do you think you agree with Barthes on this? 
- what do you think Barthes means when he says that "a photograph is invisible: it is not what we see"?
- how do you think Barthes classifies "amateur" photographs? (It is probably different than how most would.)
- what are Barthes "three practices" of photography? 
- what does Barthes mean when he says that he "transforms" his body in front of an image? 
- how does Barthes describe the difference between being photographed versus being painted or drawn? 
- how does Barthes describe photography's ability to allow someone to " see" themselves? 
- where does an "inauthenticity" within photography come from for Barthes? 

Readings (click):

Project 3 - Color + Abstraction


Project 3: Color + Abstraction

Due Date: Wednesday, November 16th. 

Project Description: With Project 3, you will start to explore both how color and metaphor can work into your images to create deeper meaning and broader context. Remember, "abstract" does not necessarily only mean a focus on formal art elements (line, shape, proportion, balance, etc). Think back to what Robert Adams said in the Art 21 video we watched where he spoke about the visual poetry in photographs. That visual poetry is just as much of an abstraction as is high, formalist abstraction.  

Project Requirements: Your theme and sizes are up to you, however you should go no smaller than 8.5" x 11" for your prints. You may work with a singular image or you may work in a series. 

Project Outcomes: A main goal of this project is to shift your focus from seeing in black and white to now seeing in color - and not just seeing and thinking in color, but exploring what color can mean while adding in narrative or context within images. Learning to think in metaphor is integral to one's success as a creative. 

Artists to Consider: William Eggleston, Annie Liebovitz, Irving Penn, Nobuyoshi Araki, Ren Huang, Nan Goldin, Andreas Gursky, Gary Hill, Jeff Wall, Dinh Q. Le, Miranda Lichtenstein, Catherine Opie, Mariah Robertson, Rafael Rozendaal, Cory Arcangel, Cindy Sherman, +

Grading:  As per the syllabus, the grading for this project will be broken down according to the following categories: 

Project Total: 10 points:

Technical Aspects*: 0.0 - 2.0 points

Conceptual Development: 0.0 - 2.0 points

Composition: 0.0 - 2.0 points

Subject/Theme: 0.0 - 2.0 points

Ambition, Rigor and Involvement: 0.0 - 2.0 points

*Technical Aspects include both your understanding of camera functionality and the quality of your printing. 


Project 4 Description: Class Collaborative

Project 4: Class Collaborative

Due Date: Wednesday, November 30th. We will install and begin crit on Wednesday, November 30th and continue crit to Friday, December 2nd. Remember that with this project, the expectation is that you will be shooting throughout the majority of the semester to have images for this project. There will not be a lot of down time between Project 3, Project 4 and Project 5, so it is in your best interest not to leave shooting for Project 4 until the last minute. 

Project Description: Project 4 is a class collaborative project, where every member of the class will contribute images to be installed in a specific place on campus. This location of installation is not settled as of yet, though the expectation is that it will be in a public setting where a significant population of the Gustavus community will have access to viewing it. 

Project Requirements: Each member of the class is responsible for 4 photos to be installed. These photos do not have to be uniform in any capacity, either in size, content or subject. They may all be a part of a similar series, or they may be completely unique images. You should keep in mind that you many not necessarily show these images together. The sizes for your images may range from small (4" x 6" at their smallest) to the largest size our printers are capable of printing, roughly 17" x 22". Your images and concepts should help dictate the size of your prints. 

Project Theme: The theme for Project 4, as chosen by the class is "Abandoned Structures/Objects". 

Project Outcomes: A main goal of this project is to start thinking about how disparate images can communicate with one another when placed in a similar vicinity. An isolated image, away in solitude, may take on a different context or connotation when viewed in conjunction with other images that are varied in subject. The resulting dialog that starts to happen is important to recognize and control as the images we make often are seen together with many other images out in society and culture. Similarly, a photograph installed in an environment can often be read differently than a photograph simply seen on a screen. We will further explore how an image can take on new meaning and context when it becomes an "art object" rather than just a digital file. 

Artists to Consider: Wolfgang Tillmans, 

Grading:  As per the syllabus, the grading for this project will be broken down according to the following categories: 

Project Total: 10 points:

Technical Aspects*: 0.0 - 2.0 points

Conceptual Development: 0.0 - 2.0 points

Composition: 0.0 - 2.0 points

Subject/Theme: 0.0 - 2.0 points

Ambition, Rigor and Involvement: 0.0 - 2.0 points

*Technical Aspects include both your understanding of camera functionality and the quality of your printing. 

Resources for Final Project: Photo Essay

Final project: A photo essay of 4 images that tell us something we don't already know.
Due last day of class, Monday May 15th. 


Ways of Seeing: The Contemporary Photo Essay

Manipulating Truth, Losing Credibility

Photojournalist Exits Prestigious Contest After Cloned Straw Discovered


Surprising Photos from the US-Mexico Border

Mother Jones's Archive of Photo Essays

Photo Essays from PBS

Photo Essays from Kinfolk Magazine

Peter Moore & The Destruction of Penn Station

via The Guardian
Photographer of the year - 2015 Shortlist:

via Time
10 Best Photo Essays of the Month: 
Ways of Seeing: The Contemporary Photo Essay
TIME Picks the Top 100 Photos of 2015:

via The Washington Post
This is what the real Afghanistan looks like: 

via The New Yorker
The Trans Community of Christopher Street: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/01/the-trans-community-of-christopher-street


Nina Berman: 
Personal Site: http://www.ninaberman.com/
Short Presentation on Marine Wedding: https://youtu.be/DnDl0bO5EO4
Purple Hearts: https://vimeo.com/15756887

Zackary Drucker & Rhys Ernst: 
Whitney Biennial: http://whitney.org/Exhibitions/2014Biennial/ZackaryDruckerAndRhysErnst
Google Images: https://www.google.com/search?q=Zackary+Drucker+and+Rhys+Ernst,+%E2%80%9CRelationship%E2%80%9D+%282008%E2%80%9313%29&newwindow=1&es_sm=91&biw=1178&bih=635&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=MSkkVfnXGoa2sAWssoHQCA&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ

An-My Le:
Art21: http://www.art21.org/artists/an-my-le
Art21 (2): http://www.pbs.org/art21/watch-now/segment-an-my-l%C3%AA-in-protest
Brooklyn Rail Article: http://brooklynrail.org/2015/02/art/an-my-l-with-sara-christoph

Nikki S. Lee:

Philip Lorca DiCorcia:

Laurel Nakadate:
Arts ATL Article: http://www.artsatl.com/2012/12/review-14/
Brooklyn Rail Article (by John Yau): http://www.brooklynrail.org/2011/05/artseen/laurel-nakadate-only-the-lonely
MoMA Collection: http://www.moma.org/rails4/collection/artists/37181?locale=en&page=1
Personal Site: http://laurelnakadate.weebly.com/
Uncertainty is Your Friend: https://vimeo.com/26919699
via Vice: http://www.vice.com/video/laurel-nakadate

Catherine Opie:

Gordon Parks: 

Simon Roberts (Chasing the sunset):

Hank Willis Thomas
Selected Photos: http://www.hankwillisthomas.com/WORKS/Photographic-/10/thumbsA Century of White Women: http://www.jackshainman.com/exhibitions/past/2015/hank-willis-thomas/
Unbranded (at Brooklyn Museum): https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/exhibitions/unbranded
What Advertisements Don't Say (via Time): http://time.com/3776410/what-advertisements-dont-say/

Carrie Mae Weems:
Art21: http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/carrie-mae-weems
via MacArthur Foundation: https://youtu.be/oLHzpH__-RkThe Kitchen Table Series: https://youtu.be/pPDInpNoO50

Martha Wilson:
I Have Become My Own Worst Fear: http://www.ppowgallery.com/exhibition/554/work#&panel1-1

This is a very abridged list of important photographers, both historically and working today. Feel free to browse this list if you need inspiration for someone to pick to do your Show and Tell on. We will also be talking about some of these people at different points throughout the semester. 

Ansel Adams - http://www.anseladams.com/
Robert Adams - https://fraenkelgallery.com/artists/robert-adams
Nobuyoshi Araki - http://www.artnet.com/artists/nobuyoshi-araki/
Diane Arbus - http://www.artnet.com/artists/diane-arbus/
Richard Avedon - http://www.avedonfoundation.org/
Vanessa Beecroft - http://www.vanessabeecroft.com/
Stephanie Benassi - http://www.stephaniebenassi.com/
Stephanie Booth - http://perstef.com/
Phillip-Lorca diCorcia - http://www.davidzwirner.com/artists/philip-lorca-dicorcia/
Walker Evans - http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/evan/hd_evan.htm
LaToya Ruby Frazier - http://www.latoyarubyfrazier.com/
Brendan Fowler - http://tellesfineart.com/artist/new-artist/gallery/
Adam Fuss - http://www.cheimread.com/artists/adam-fuss
Ren Hang - http://renhang.org/
Gary Hill - http://www.gladstonegallery.com/artist/gary-hill/work#&panel1-1
Horst P. Horst - http://www.horstphorst.com/
Olivier Giron - http://oliviergiron.com/
Nan Goldin - http://www.matthewmarks.com/new-york/artists/nan-goldin/
Douglas Gordon - http://www.gagosian.com/artists/douglas-gordon
Andreas Gursky - http://www.moma.org/collection/artists/7806
Gary Hill - http://garyhill.com/
Graciela Iturbide - http://www.gracielaiturbide.org/en/
Dorthea Lange - http://www.moma.org/collection/artists/3373
An-My Lê - http://www.anmyle.com/
Dinh Q. Le - http://www.artnet.com/artists/dinh-q-l%C3%AA/
Nikki S. Lee - http://www.tonkonow.com/lee.html
Annie Leibovitz - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Leibovitz
Miranda Lichtenstein - http://mirandalichtenstein.com/images/
Sally Mann - http://sallymann.com/
Robert Mapplethorpe - http://www.mapplethorpe.org/portfolios/
Ryan McGinley - http://www.ryanmcginley.com/
Yasumasa Morimura - https://www.artsy.net/artist/yasumasa-morimura/works
Daido Moriyama - http://www.moriyamadaido.com/english/#/gallery/
Youssef Nabil - http://www.youssefnabil.com/
Laurel Nakadate - http://www.tonkonow.com/nakadate_relations.html
Shirin Neshat - http://www.gladstonegallery.com/artist/shirin-neshat/works
Zoe Leonard - http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1477?locale=en
Catherine Opie - http://www.regenprojects.com/artists/catherine-opie
Trevor Paglen - http://www.paglen.com/
Gordon Parkshttp://www.gordonparksfoundation.org/archive
Irving Penn - http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/exhibitions/IrvingPennArchives/permanent
Eileen Quinlan - http://eileenquinlan.com/
Man Ray - http://www.moma.org/collection/artists/3716
Mariah Robertson - http://www.mbart.com/artists/141-mariah-robertson/works/
Rafael Rozendaal - http://www.newrafael.com/
Thomas Ruff - http://www.davidzwirner.com/artists/thomas-ruff/
Gary Schneider - http://www.garyschneider.net/
Gregor Schneider - http://www.gregor-schneider.de/
Collier Schorr - http://www.303gallery.com/artists/collier_schorr/index.php?exhid=33&p=images
Cindy Sherman - http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2012/cindysherman/#/0/
Andres Serrano - http://www.artnet.com/artists/andres-serrano/
David Benjamin Sherry - http://davidbenjaminsherry.com/
Lorna Simpson - https://www.salon94.com/artists/detail/lorna-simpson
Thomas Struth - http://www.thomasstruth32.com/bigsize/index.html
Hiroshi Sugimoto - http://www.artnet.com/artists/hiroshi-sugimoto/
Hank Willis Thomas - http://www.hankwillisthomas.com/
Wolfgang Tillmans - http://tillmans.co.uk/
Matthieu Venot - http://matthieuvenot.tumblr.com/
Jeff Wall - http://whitecube.com/artists/jeff_wall/
Gillian Wearing - http://www.maureenpaley.com/artists/gillian-wearing
Carrie Mae Weems - http://carriemaeweems.net/
James Welling - http://jameswelling.net/
Hannah Wilke - http://www.hannahwilke.com/id27.html
Jane and Louise Wilson - http://www.303gallery.com/artists/jane_and_louise_wilson/
Martha Wilson - http://www.marthawilson.com/

Recommended/Suggested Instagrammers to Follow

Past Students: 

Amateur/Emerging Photographers






Professional Photographers


Travel Photography
@nasa (I guess space counts as travel, yeah?)

Wildlife/Nature Photography

If you all have anyone you'd like to recommend for the list, let me know - I'm always on the look out for good people to follow.